By Gwendolyn Leick
This Dictionary offers a entire survey of the entire diversity of old close to jap structure from the Neolithic around huts in Palestine to the large temples of Ptolemaic Egypt. Gwendolyn Leick examines the advance of the significant forms of historical structure inside of their geographical and old context, and describes gains of significant websites resembling Ur, Nineveh and Babylon, in addition to the various lesser-known websites. She additionally covers the diversities of normal historical architectural buildings resembling pyramids, tombs and homes, information the development fabric and methods hired, and clarifies expert terminology.
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Additional info for A Dictionary of Ancient Near Eastern Architecture
900°–1000°C). A traditional method still employed in the Middle East today consists of stacking the raw bricks in a wide circle of diminishing diameter until a dome is formed, leaving just a small opening at the top for ventilation. Then a fire of brushwood bundles, thorns etc, is lit inside the structure which has to be fed continuously for up to forty-eight hours until the whole dome glows red, showing that the necessary temperature has been reached. Kilns with a furnace and fired with wood are also in use.
The trunks of date palms make adequate beams for a span up to 4m and were used in the southern, and generally tree-less, areas like southern Mesopotamia or Egypt. In the more northern parts, where timber was plentiful, a variety of trees were used. Much coveted were the cedars and similar conifers which grew in Northern Syria and Southern Anatolia. They were virtually indispensable for monumental buildings because they could span much larger spaces (8–12m), and exports to Egypt and Mesopotamia are attested from the 3rd millennium BC onwards.
In Egyptian TRABEATED ARCHITECTURE, they were rectangular blocks held up by columns or pilasters, which carried the roofing-slabs of stone which replaced the wooden beams. Their width and height always corresponds to the upper part of the support. The disposition is longitudinal in the centre of a large space (eg in a hypostyle hall) and transversal to the row of supports in the subsidiary spaces (aisles or porticoes). Architraves are bound by means of clamps and pegdowels in wood or stone. Two or three blocks meeting at a corner were cut diagonally to fit like a jigsaw, and dovetailed together.