By James H. Green
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Additional resources for Access Technologies: DSL and Cable
For short distances, as in the EIA/TIA 568B structured cabling standards, precisely manufactured category 7 twisted-pair wire can carry bandwidths of 600 MHz for distances of up to 100 m. Wire centers in most communities have existed in the same location for decades. Wire centers are located to achieve a rea- Telephone Local Loop Characteristics 39 sonable balance between cost and transmission quality. The cable connecting the central office to subscribers is known as feeder cable. At distribution points the cable is connected to the distribution cable, which terminates at the subscriber’s premises.
With 5 bytes of header per cell, the overhead is approximately 10 percent. Equipment vendors claim from 16 to 20 voice channels per DSL line, but of course that depends on the actual data rate the line can sustain and also on the amount of bandwidth needed for data.
As we will discuss in Chap. 9, the passive optical network (PON) has advocates for both protocols, and the same is true of DSL. IP has the advantages of being less complex and having a broad range of applications and software drivers to support it. ATM is more complex and expensive, but it has QoS built into the design, and many of the ILECs use it as the backbone of their DSL networks. Frame Relay Toward the end of the 1980s, a new protocol known as frame relay began getting attention. Unlike fixed circuits, frame relay 34 Access Technologies: DSL and Cable operates on the principle of access circuits from multiple customers that are statistically multiplexed into the carrier’s backbone.