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By David W. Phillipson

David Phillipson provides an illustrated account of African prehistory, from the origins of humanity via ecu colonization during this revised and increased variation of his unique paintings. Phillipson considers Egypt and North Africa of their African context, comprehensively reviewing the archaeology of West, East, valuable and Southern Africa. His ebook demonstrates the relevance of archaeological study to realizing modern Africa and stresses the continent's contribution to the cultural background of humankind.

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Boisei and the earlier individuals now classed as P. ) aethiopicus. H. habilis none the less shows substantial variability and some authorities consider that its more massive representatives (such as the famous ‘1470’ skull from Koobi Fora, Kenya) should be regarded as a distinct species, for which the name H. rudolfensis has been proposed (Lieberman et al. 1996). 0 million years ago. The rounded skull-vault with a welldeveloped forehead housed a brain which, at about 800 cubic centimetres, was some 70 per cent larger than those of the contemporary P.

5 million years ago if not before, several distinct types of hominid co-existed in broadly similar environments. The exact number of parallel hominid lineages and their relationship to each other are subjects of controversy. Until recently, the most widely accepted classification of these early hominids placed them in two distinct groups (Tobias 1980). This broad dichotomy is still accepted, although some authorities now feel that one of these categories, the australopithecines, may comprise more than one genus, being represented by the so-called gracile species A.

5 million years (A. C. Walker et al. 1986), subsequently becoming significantly more common and representing about half of the total hominid sample. Specimens of P. 6 million years ago; from the beginning of this time-span, Oldowan artefacts are also attested (H. Roche et al. 1999). 6 million years ago, a more advanced hominid is attested in the fossil record by a partial male skeleton from Nariokotome which may confidently be attributed to H. ergaster (A. C. Walker and Leakey 1993). This juvenile individual, further discussed in chapter 3, had an even larger cranial capacity than his predecessors, and presented a striking contrast with P.

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