By Eleonora Gullone (auth.)
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Extra info for Animal Cruelty, Antisocial Behaviour, and Aggression: More than a Link
Nevertheless, their adolescent behaviour may incur adverse consequences for their adult years, including, for example, a criminal record and dropping out of school. (Frick & Viding, 2009). Child versus adolescent-onset of antisocial behaviour Reflecting their different trajectories, the child-onset group is also referred to as the life-course persistent group, and the adolescent-onset group has been referred to as the adolescence-limited group (Moffitt, 2003; 2006). Of note, dispositional and contextual risk factors differ depending upon whether problem behaviours have early (childhood) or late (adolescence) onset.
Included are considerations of overt physical aggression, lack of concern for the feelings of others, sensation-seeking or risk-taking behaviours, and non-conformity or disregard for the rules of society or social institutions. However, whilst each is certainly a characteristic of certain antisocial behaviours, none is a characteristic of them all. At the end of his deliberations, Rutter comes no closer to a cohesive conceptualization of the construct. One way of dealing with this issue as adopted by Dodge and colleagues (2006) is not only to acknowledge the conceptual and empirical overlap between antisocial behaviour and aggressive behaviour but to also identify the differences.
However, the incorporation of animal cruelty into the broader aggression literature was not maintained. Research and theoretical attention on animal cruelty evolved into a largely separate literature, as is evident from the discussion that follows regarding the conceptualization of animal cruelty. Defining animal cruelty Although the terms “cruelty” and “abuse” have been used interchangeably by some writers, it is noteworthy that distinctions have been made. According to Peterson and Farrington (2007), cruelty behaviour results in some form of gratification to the offender for the suffering caused.