By Ian McLoughlin
This hands-on, one-stop source describes the foremost ideas of speech and audio processing illustrated with wide MATLAB examples.
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Extra info for Applied Speech and Audio Processing : With Matlab Examples
16(6): 582–589, 2001. 37 3 Speech Chapter 2 described the general handling, processing and visualisation of audio vectors: sequences of samples captured at some particular sample rate, and which together represent sound. This chapter will build upon that foundation, and use it to begin to look at speech. There is nothing special about speech from an audio perspective – it is simply like any other sound – it’s only when we hear it that our brains begin to interpret a particular signal as being speech.
G. /p/ in ‘pop’. Most of the consonant sounds can be either voiced or unvoiced, depending upon whether the glottis is resonating. For example /c/ in ‘cap’ is unvoiced whereas /g/ in ‘gap’ is voiced. 2. Characteristics of speech 45 Finally, replace all vowels with the same phoneme and read again: Tha yallaw dag had ﬂaas. Apart from utterly humiliating such sceptics by making them sound stupid, it is immediately obvious that although the same-vowel sentence sounds odd, it is still highly intelligible.
By that I mean some type of sound that is contained within a vector of samples. Now when that vector is analysed it might happen that the feature is split into two: half appears in one audio frame, and the other half in another frame. The complete feature does not appear in any analysis window, and may have effectively been hidden. In this way, features that are lucky enough to fall in the centre of a frame are emphasised at the expense of features which are chopped in half. 2), this problem is exacerbated further since audio at the extreme ends of an analysis frame will be de-emphasised further.