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Archaeology of the Lower Muskogee Creek Indians, 1715-1836 - download pdf or read online

By Howard Thomas Foster II, Mary Theresa Bonhage-Freund, Lisa D. O'Steen

The first entire archaeological survey of the Muskogee (Maskókî) Creek Indians.
The Muskogee Indians who lived alongside the decrease Chattahoochee and Flint River watersheds had, and proceed to have, a profound impact at the improvement of the southeastern usa, specifically through the old interval (circa 1540–1836). Our wisdom of that tradition is restricted to what we will be able to study from their descendants and from archaeological and old assets.
Combining historic files and archaeological learn on all identified decrease Muskogee Creek websites, Thomas Foster has safely pinpointed city destinations mentioned within the literature and said in modern Creek oral histories. In so doing, this quantity synthesizes the archaeological range and version in the decrease Creek Indians among 1715 and 1836. The ebook is a research of archaeological equipment since it analyzes the temporal and geographic version inside a unmarried archaeological part and the biases of that archaeological data. Foster's learn segregates the adaptation among reduce Creek Indian cities via a nearby and direct ancient technique. for this reason, he's capable of parent the original changes among person Creek Indian towns. 
Foster argues that the learn of Creek Indian historical past could be on the point of cities rather than archaeological stages and that there's major continuity among the tradition of the ancient interval Indians and the Prehistoric and Protohistoric peoples.

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The renowned botanist William Bartram, who traveled among and wrote about Creek Indians during the 1770s, was astute in his observations of plants used and grown by the Indians. He observed that the Creek people grew corn, rice, sweet potatoes, beans, squash, and watermelons (Waselkov and Braund 1995:165). Benjamin Hawkins noted a dependence on similar produce 20 years later, in 1796 (Foster 2003a:21). Some Indians had begun growing Europeanintroduced foods like rice, but the main diet for the majority of people came from native products such as corn and beans.

These plots were located in the river ®oodplains immediately adjacent to the town during the Historic Period. However, there is some evidence that some Southeastern Indians in the very late Historic Period (1800–1836) were abandoning river bottom settlements and “settling out” into the uplands for a variety of reasons (Waselkov 1997), but the degree of this change in settlement has not been quanti¤ed over space or time. For example, we do not know if this change was stimulated by individuals who began ranching in the late nineteenth century, by population growth, or by environmental variables, or if it was a normal shifting of population.

Since most 12 / Foster censuses did not enumerate all individuals, it is not possible to specify statistics on sex ratio over time. However, the 1832 Creek Indian census enumerated the number of males, females, and slaves in each household for every town and village in the Upper and Lower Creek region. While the Creek Indian economy and household structure may have changed over the eighteenth century (Ethridge 2003; Saunt 1999), the census is useful for its quantitative detail. While not as detailed as the 1832 censuses, a census in 1725 by Captain Glover also enumerated males, females, and children and is useful for comparison (Feest 1974).

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