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At the Border of Empires: The Tohono O’odham, Gender, and by Andrae M. Marak, Laura Tuennerman PDF

By Andrae M. Marak, Laura Tuennerman

the tale of the Tohono O’odham peoples deals a major account of assimilation. Bifurcated through a border demarcating Mexico and the us that used to be imposed on them after the Gadsden buy in 1853, the Tohono O’odham lived on the fringe of empires. even though they have been frequently invisible to the bulk cultures of the area, they attracted the eye of reformers and executive officers within the usa, who have been decided to “assimilate” local peoples into “American society.” by way of concentrating on gender norms and beliefs within the assimilation of the Tohono O’odham, At the Border of Empires offers a lens for either local American heritage and broader societal rules approximately femininity, masculinity, and empire round the flip of the 20th century.

starting within the Eighteen Eighties, the U.S. govt applied courses to cast off “vice” one of the Tohono O’odham and to inspire the morals of the bulk tradition because the foundation of a technique of “Americanization.” throughout the subsequent fifty years, tribal norms interacted with—sometimes conflicting with and occasionally reinforcing—those of the bigger society in ways in which considerably formed either executive coverage and tribal adventure. This booklet examines the mediation among cultures, the officers who occasionally constructed regulations in keeping with own ideals and gender biases, and the local humans whose lives have been impacted consequently. those concerns are introduced into invaluable reduction via evaluating the reviews of the Tohono O’odham on aspects of a border that was once, from a local standpoint, absolutely arbitrary.

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Extra info for At the Border of Empires: The Tohono O’odham, Gender, and Assimilation, 1880-1934

Example text

We will not be the first to note that the land inhabited by the Tohono O’odham is a harsh one—a dry and mountainous desert that has strongly shaped, and continues to shape, the tribe’s lifestyle, farming, and food ways. The earliest history of the Tohono O’odham is difficult to document for archivalbased historians like ourselves. Thankfully, the Tohono O’odham also have a strong oral history tradition. From this tradition we know that the Tohono O’odham have laid claim to a large region in the current southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico since the beginning of time.

N. Wilson, resigned after only eight months on the job. 48 At the turn of the century Rev. W. H. Gill proposed working more broadly with the Tohono O’odham, noting critically that he believed the government was doing nothing to help them. He toured “Papago country”; naturally his travels took him into Mexico. Equally critical of the Catholics, he reported at the time that he found Tohono O’odham worshipping in old Catholic churches without “white” guidance. 50 As a missionary he believed there was much work to be done.

9 When the Spanish government expelled the Jesuits in 1767, the Franciscans took their place. Around the same time as the Jesuit expulsion, the Spanish Empire under Charles III enacted the Bourbon Reforms, in part, as a means of better securing its claims in frontier regions like the Papaguería. 10 The Franciscans used (and the government subsidized) their missions as a means to convince Native Americans— especially Apaches but also Pimans, Tohono O’odham, and others—to settle permanently, take up agriculture, and (in general) adopt Spanish customs.

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