By T E Rinderer
Publication by way of Rinderer, T E
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Extra info for Bee Genetics and Breeding
Apis mellifera became independent from environmental conditions to a great extent: one and the same species is able to survive in semidesert tropical regions as well as in cold-temperate zones. The phenotypic variability of the species involves behavior as well as morphology. This includes such essential features as reaction to cold, susceptibility to diseases, rhythm during communication, and the specificity of learning (von Frisch, 1967; Lauer and Lindauer, 1973; Koltermann, 1973). In multivariate analysis (principal components), the clusters of the geographic varieties formed by representing the factors 1 and 2 in a coordinate system take the shape of a lying "Y" with one long and two short branches (Fig.
In spite of its small size it competes well with the other Apis species (Koeniger, 1976b). The reproductive isolation of the three sympatric species in southeast Asia is favored by different flight times of drones (Koeniger and Wijayagunasekara, 1979). Distribution (Fig. 5): Coasts of the Persian Gulf, Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines (Palawan). Museum material at Oberursel is not sufficient to permit a full evaluation of A florea's phenotypic variation. However, it shows the same trend as the other species: larger types in the north and smaller ones in the south.
Monticola, which lives in higher altitudes and has a medium size (Fig. 3). This is why Buttel-Reepen (1906) proposed a subspecies for the bees of Africa, called "unicolor Latreille" as opposed to the subspecies "mellifica" comprised of all Mediterranean types. However, this nomination was clearly contrary to the visible phenotype of the multicolored bees of the region. The proposal was never generally accepted. The name "unicolor" remained restricted to the uniformly black bees of Madagascar. Instead, the name "adansonii Latreille" was generally adopted for the more or less yellow bees of tropical Africa, no matter whether they were from east, west, or south.